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History Of Goa

Goa's history stretches back to the 3rd century BC, when it formed part of the Mauryan Empire. It was later ruled by the Satavahanas of Kolhapur, around two thousand years ago and passed on to the Chalukyas of Badami, who controlled it between 580 to 750. Over the next few centuries Goa was successively ruled by the Silharas, the Kadambas and the Chalukyas of Kalyani, rulers of Deccan India.The Kadambas, a local Hindu dynasty based at Chandrapura, (present day Chandor - Salcete), laid an indelible mark on the course of Goa's pre-colonial history and culture.

In 1312, Goa  came under the governance of the Delhi Sultanate. However, the kingdom's grip on the region was weak, and by 1370 they were forced to surrender it to Harihara I of the Vijayanagara empire. The Vijayanagara monarchs held on to the territory until 1469, when it was appropriated by the Bahmani sultans of Gulbarga. After that dynasty crumbled, the area fell to the hands of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur who made Velha Goa their auxiliary capital.

In 1498, Vasco da Gama became the first European to set foot in India through a sea route, landing in Calicut (Kozhikode) in Kerala, followed by an arrival in what is now known as Old Goa. Goa History, then a term referring to the City of Goa on the southern bank of the River Mandovi, was the largest trading center on India's western coast. The Portuguese arrived with the intention of setting up a colony and seizing control of the spice trade from other European powers after traditional land routes to India had been closed by the Ottoman Turks. Later, in 1510, Portuguese admiral Afonso de Albuquerque defeated the ruling Bijapur kings with the help of a local ally, Timayya, leading to the establishment of a permanent settlement in Velha Goa (or Old Goa). The Portuguese intended it to be a colony and a naval base, distinct from the fortified enclaves established elsewhere along India's coasts.

The Portuguese actually arrived in Goa in 1510, under the command of Alfonso de Albuquerque. They had tried to establish a base further south, but were opposed by the Zamorin of Calicut. They faced stiff competition from the Turks, who controlled the trade routes in the Indian Ocean at that time.

Blessed by its natural harbours and wide rivers, Goa was the ideal base for the seafaring Portuguese, who determined to wrestle control of the spice route from the East.Portuguese control was limited to a small area around Old Goa, but by the middle of the 16th Century, it had expanded to include the talukas (provinces) of Bardez and Salcete.

With the imposition of the Inquisition (1560 1812), many of the local residents were forcibly converted to Christianity by missionaries, threatened by punishment or confiscation of land, titles or property.[citation needed] Many converts however retaining parts of their Hindu heritage. To escape the Inquisition and harassment, thousands fled the state, settling down in the neighbouring towns of Mangalore and Karwar in Karnataka, and Savantwadi in Maharashtra. With the arrival of the other European powers in India in the 16th century, most Portuguese possessions were surrounded by the British and the Dutch. Goa soon became Portugal's most important possession in India, and was granted the same civic privileges as Lisbon In 1843 the capital was moved to Panjim from Velha Goa. By mid-18th century the area under occupation had expanded to most of Goa's present day state limits.

After India gained independence from the British in 1947, Portugal refused to accede to India's demand to relinquish their control of its enclave. Resolution 1541 by the United Nations General Assembly in 1960 noted that Goa was non-self-governing and favoured self determination. Finally, on December 12, 1961, the Indian army with 40,000 troops moved in as part of Operation Vijay. Fighting lasted for twenty-six hours before the Portuguese garrison surrendered. Goa, along with Daman and Diu (enclaves lying to the north of Maharashtra), was made into a centrally administered Union Territory on India. India's takeover of Goa is commemorated on December 19 (Liberation Day). The UN Security Council considered a resolution condemning the invasion which was vetoed by the Soviet Union. Most nations later recognized India's action, and Portugal recognized it after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. On May 30, 1987, the Union Territory was split, and Goa was elevated as India's twenty-fifth state, with Daman and Diu remaining Union Territories.

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